All about Microprocessor Block Diagram and its Working

In this article, you will be able to learn about microprocessors through block diagrams and how these diagrams are created. The definition, working, applications and block diagrams will be discussed in this article.


A semiconductor device that is made of VLSI is called a microprocessor. A microprocessor is the base unit of any system. When it is used as a CPU in a computer, it is called a microcomputer.

In this article, we are going to learn about microprocessors through their block diagram. The components to make such a diagram include buses, RAM, EPROM, etc. We will discuss applications of microprocessors as well. So, make sure you read it all!

In this article
  1. What is the Microprocessor?
  2. A Brief History of Microprocessors
  3. Working with a Microprocessor
  4. Applications of Microprocessors
  5. How to Draw Such a Block Diagram?
  6. Conclusion

Part 1. What is the Microprocessor?

A microprocessor is considered the brain of the computer. It is a silicon chip that receives binary coded information through inputs and processes that information. The output is in the form of information stored in the memory and is displayed on the screen after processing.

It is a low-cost chip, making it more usable for systems. As Integrated Circuit is used in these microprocessors, they work at high speeds with full accuracy. These programmable chips are versatile so that they can be used for multiple purposes. The other advantage of using these chips is their low power consumption. Metal oxide semiconductors are used in these chips to make them run at low power.

Block Diagram for Microprocessor

There is a lot to discuss when it comes to designing a block diagram for a microprocessor. There are multiple components used in a microprocessor, each having its functions and properties.

Here is the block diagram for a microprocessor.

Block diagram for a microprocessor

The block diagram for the Microprocessor shows it working as a whole. There are a number of components that have their significance. Let's discuss all of these components.

The slaves in the diagram are also called peripherals. In the case of a microprocessor, peripherals are input, output, RAM and EPROM.  Where the RAM and EPROM are used as memory slots.

Part 2. A Brief History of Microprocessors

Microprocessors gained importance in 1971, and the first Microprocessor was built in 1971. It was called Intel 4004.

VLSI has had a role in increasing circuit density in these microprocessors, making them smaller in size and performing more tasks. It holds billions of electronic circuits in this small chip.

These chips enabled engineers to develop microcomputers that were quite small in size as compared to the earlier computers. The size of the first computer was bigger, just like the size of a single bedroom. Those computers were able to solve simple mathematics in hours. The invention of these microprocessors helped engineers build a computer of small size, and they were quite fast, resolving tough equations in seconds.

The Pentium family of microprocessors gained popularity in 1993, and it was able to have 3.3 million transistors in a single chip. The main features of this chip were a 32-bit address and 64-bit data bus with 2 eight kilobytes caches.

The speed of these microprocessors was in the range of 60 to 200 MHz, which was quite impressive at that time. These Pentium processors were upgraded to Pentium Pro in 1995, Pentium 2 in 1997, Pentium 3 in 1999, and Pentium 4 in 2000.

The Core family was introduced in 2006 and had upgrades in them as well. We are using these upgrades in our daily laptops and computers. Technology has made our computers so fast and accurate.

Microprocessor VS. CPU

Every electronic device has a CPU in it. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is like the brain of the device. It performs a number of functions in the system and makes decisions on command. Every CPU is a microprocessor, but not all the microprocessors are CPUs. So, there is a slight difference between both.

microprocessor as a cpu

A CPU is like a human brain, which gives orders to the other parts of the body. The hands are used to pick and release things and perform many other tasks. The foot is important for the human body to move from one place to the other. Eyes are used to see, and eras are made to listen to the voices around us. Every part of the body has its role.

Meanwhile, the brain is the one that binds all the parts of our body. It communicates and helps perform a task. This is what a CPU does.

On the other hand, a microprocessor is a little complex. Taking the human body as an example, the parts of the body, like eyes, feet, and hands, have smaller chips that execute the actions. These chips are said to be microprocessors. Each component of the computer, like RAM, Input, and output device, has a microprocessor that deals with all the actions given.

The latest system, or a MacBook, contains almost 5 billion to 25 billion transistors, which means that the system can have 25 billion actions in a single second. It is quite remarkable and unimaginable. This is all happening due to the microprocessors.

Part 3. Working with a Microprocessor

Working with a microprocessor is best understood when you take a look at how it is built. A microprocessor consists of three basic functions.

  1. ALU, or Arithmetic/Logic Unit, performs all the mathematics in the system, like subtraction, addition, division, and multiplication. The modern Microprocessor can solve complex equations in parts of milliseconds.
  2. A Microprocessor is used to send information from one part to the other through memory lines. They move information from one memory location to the other in a quick time.
  3. It jumps from one set of instructions to the other, and this specific property of the Microprocessor makes it unique and faster.

There are many other operations that a microprocessor performs, but these three functions are the basics to have a reference. The block diagram for the Microprocessor given above shows all the functions a single microprocessor does.

Part 4. Applications of Microprocessors

There are a number of applications you might not even know about. They are being used in every electronic device we might have in our homes. Here are a few of the applications of the microprocessors.

Household Devices

A thermostat device that keeps the temperature according to the set temperature has a microprocessor in it. The Microprocessor senses the temperature and turns the device on and off when the acquired temperature is achieved.

Other household devices like TVs, microwave ovens, Irons, stoves, refrigerators, and all other devices contain microprocessors.

Industrial Devices

Microprocessors are used in cars, planes, boats, credit card processing units, pumps, traffic control units, and all types of heavy machinery.

Medical Devices

Microprocessors are also used in medical devices like insulin kits and other instruments used to check temperature, heartbeat, blood pressure, and other devices used to store medical instruments.


All types of function generators, oscilloscopes, analyzers, microscopes, etc., use microprocessors in it. They are vital in performing a task with full accuracy in shorter time frames.


The electric toys and cars that children love to play with use these microprocessors. Remote-controlled planes and drone cameras use microprocessors, making them work perfectly well.

Satellite Communication

Microprocessors are the most important parts of communication, especially in telephone and satellite communication. These devices help us communicate with people too far away from us.

Part 5. How to Draw Such a Block Diagram?

Here is a complete guide for you to create a block diagram with the help of a template. Follow these steps.

Step 1: Click to download this template and open the file.

download a template to start drawing your block diagram

Step 2: Delete unwanted blocks and lines from the template file and adjust the blocks according to your needs.

Remove all the elements that are not needed in your model

Step 3: Arrange the blocks and label them according to your model. Connect the blocks with correct lines.

microcontroller block diagram

The block diagram is ready and you will be able to print it if necessary.


Microprocessors are evolving day by day and have significance in our daily lives as well. They have made life easier by performing difficult tasks more easily. The block diagram for the Microprocessor has made its working and functionalities clear. These diagrams could help us understand a model and see how a system works.

These diagrams could be difficult to make, but a template having all the components can help in a better way. So, if you want to create something like that, go for a template instead of choosing a conventional method to draw every component of the diagram. It will make your work way easier than you think.

edrawmax logoEdrawMax Desktop
Simple alternative to Visio
210+ types of diagrams
10K+ free templates & 26k+ symbols
10+ AI diagram generators
10+ export formats
edrawmax logoEdrawMax Online
Edit diagrams anywhere, anytime
Personal cloud & Dropbox integration
Enterprise-level data security
Team management and collaboration
Edraw Team
Edraw Team Apr 15, 24
Share article: