A Complete Guide to Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagrams

Dive into the world of Entity-Relationship (ER) diagrams, the cornerstone of effective database design. Discover how these visual tools simplify complex structures, enhance communication, and provide essential blueprints for building well-organized databases.


Entity-Relationship (ER) diagrams serve as a cornerstone in the realm of database design, offering a visual representation of the relationships between entities within a system. These diagrams play a pivotal role in conceptualizing and planning database structures, aiding developers and stakeholders in understanding the intricate connections between different data elements.

By employing standardized symbols and notations, ER diagrams provide a clear and concise means to communicate complex database structures, making them an indispensable tool in the fields of information technology, software engineering, and database management.

In this article, we explore the fundamentals of ER diagrams, delve into their symbolic language, and examine real-world use cases that highlight their significance in designing robust and efficient databases.

In this article
  1. What is an ER Diagram?
  2. Types of ER Diagrams
  3. Components of ER Diagrams/ERD Symbols and Notations
  4. ERD Examples
  5. Use Case of ER Diagrams
  6. Pros and Cons of ER Diagrams
  7. How to Make an ER Diagram?

Part 1. What is an ER Diagram?

An Entity-Relationship (ER) diagram is a visual representation of a database's structure, illustrating the relationships between entities. Entities are objects or concepts (e.g., a person or a product) with attributes (e.g., name or price). Connecting lines depict relationships, conveying how entities relate to each other. Diamonds represent relationship types, while ovals represent attributes.

ER diagrams help design and communicate database schema, aiding in conceptualizing data models before implementation. They simplify complex relationships and contribute to database normalization. Despite simplifications, ER diagrams serve as a crucial tool in database design, facilitating collaboration among stakeholders and providing a blueprint for efficient data organization.

Part 2. Types of ER Diagrams

Following are the types of ER diagrams:

Conceptual ERD

concept erd
  • Purpose: Describes the high-level entities and their relationships, focusing on the overall structure of the database.
  • Content: Entities, relationships, and high-level attributes.
  • Audience: Stakeholders, business analysts.

Logical ERD

logical erd
  • Purpose: Represents entities, relationships, and attributes in more detail than the conceptual ERD, often including primary and foreign keys.
  • Content: Detailed entities, relationships, attributes, primary keys, foreign keys.
  • Audience: Database designers, developers.

Subtype and Supertype (or Class) Diagram

subtype erd
  • Purpose: Focuses specifically on representing subtype and supertype relationships in a more detailed manner.
  • Content: Supertype, subtype, attributes, relationships.
  • Audience: Database designers, developers.

Part 3. Components of ER Diagrams/ERD Symbols and Notations

When working with ERD knowing the correct symbols and notations are must to know. These symbols and notations help in creating a clear and concise representation of the database structure and relationships in an Entity-Relationship Diagram.

Sample ER Diagram showing the symbols and notations

If you don’t know the symbols and notations already below I am listing them down:

Primary Key

  • Symbol: Underlined Attribute
  • Description: Denotes the attribute (or a set of attributes) that uniquely identifies each record in the entity.


  • Symbol: Rectangle
  • Description: Represents a table in the database. It contains the name of the entity.

Weak Entity

  • Symbol: Double Rectangle
  • Description: Represents an entity that cannot be uniquely identified by its attributes alone and depends on another entity for identification.

Associative Entity

  • Symbol: Double Diamond
  • Description: Represents an entity that connects two or more entities in a many-to-many relationship and typically includes additional attributes.


  • Symbol: Diamond
  • Description: Connects two entities and represents the association between them. The relationship line is labeled with the type of relationship.

Recursive Relationship

  • Symbol: Loop arrow
  • Description: Represents a relationship where an entity is related to itself.


  • Symbol: Oval
  • Description: Represents a property or attribute of an entity. It is connected to the entity with a line.

Derived Attribute

  • Symbol: Dashed oval
  • Description: Represents an attribute whose values are derived from other attributes in the database.

Composite Attribute

  • Symbol: Oval within an oval
  • Description: Represents an attribute that can be divided into sub-parts.

Multivalued Attribute

  • Symbol: Double oval
  • Description: Denotes an attribute that can hold multiple values for a single entity.

Cardinality Notation

  • Description: Indicates the number of instances of one entity that can be associated with the number of instances of another entity.
  • Notations:
    • One-to-One: 1:1
    • One-to-Many: 1:N
    • Many-to-One: N:1
    • Many-to-Many: N:N

Part 4. ERD Examples

Let’s see how we ERDs can be used in the real life with the help of three examples:

ERD for Library Management


img: erd-for-library-management-system.jpg

Alt text:

In the Library Management ERD, we have Book, Librarian, Transactions and Member Records entities. Looking at the ERD we can see that Librarian has Book and manages Transaction and Member Record. Every transaction also has a bill generated. Entities can have further derived types such as Book has Magazine, Studybook and Journal.

ERD for Online Shopping


Here is an ER diagram illustrating the online shopping system, outlining entities like customers, administrators, vendors, and more. The connections between these entities are visually represented as lines or arrows connecting rectangles. This visualization enhances comprehension of the relationships between different entities and facilitates the design and maintenance of the system.

 RD for Hospital Management


Presented is an ER diagram illustrating the hospital management system, showcasing entities like patients, doctors, and receptionists. The connections between these entities are depicted as lines connecting rectangles, facilitating a clearer comprehension of the relationships and aiding in the system's design and maintenance.

Part 5. Use Case of ER Diagrams

Entity-Relationship (ER) diagrams are widely used in various scenarios for database design and communication. Some key use cases include:

Database Design

ER diagrams are fundamental in designing the structure of a database, helping to identify entities, attributes, and relationships.


Facilitates communication between stakeholders by providing a visual representation that is easily understood by both technical and non-technical individuals.

Blueprint for Implementation

Acts as a blueprint for implementing the database schema, guiding developers in creating tables, keys, and constraints.


Supports normalization processes by identifying and organizing data to minimize redundancy and improve data integrity.

Requirements Analysis

Helps in analyzing and understanding the data requirements of an organization or a specific project.


Serves as documentation for database structures, making it easier to maintain, modify, and troubleshoot databases.

Identifying Constraints

Aids in identifying and representing various constraints, such as primary and foreign keys, ensuring data accuracy and consistency.

Data Modeling

Assists in modeling data relationships and dependencies, providing a conceptual framework for database developers.

Query Planning

Supports query planning by offering insights into the relationships between different entities, optimizing database performance.

Part 6. Pros and Cons of ER Diagrams

While ER diagrams are a valuable tool for conceptualizing and designing databases, they are just one part of the overall database design process. They are often complemented by other documentation and tools in the development life cycle.

Pros of ER Diagrams

  • Provides a clear and easy-to-understand visual representation of the database structure.
  • Simplifies complex database designs.
  • Facilitates communication between stakeholders, including developers, designers, and non-technical users.
  • Serves as a common language for discussing and documenting database structures.
  • Aids in the design and planning of databases before implementation.
  • Helps identify entities, relationships, and attributes, ensuring a more organized database.
  • Supports the normalization process by identifying relationships and dependencies between entities.
  • Assists in database maintenance and updates by providing a blueprint for modifications.
  • Serves as a basis for generating database schema (tables, keys, constraints) in the implementation phase.

Cons of ER Diagrams

  • Oversimplification can occur, as real-world scenarios are often more complex than can be represented in a single diagram.
  • Interpretation of relationships and entities can be subjective, leading to potential inconsistencies in the model.
  • Understanding and creating ER diagrams may require training and experience, particularly for those new to database design.
  • Adapting the diagram to changes in requirements or the evolving nature of the data model can be challenging.
  • Ambiguous scenarios may arise, where it's unclear how to represent certain aspects of the database.
  • May not capture all the details of a database, such as certain business rules, constraints, or specific data types.While ER diagrams are a valuable tool for conceptualizing and designing databases, they are just one part of the overall database design process. They are often complemented by other documentation and tools in the development lifecycle.

Part 7. How to Make an ER Diagram?

Selecting the right tool for creating an Entity-Relationship (ER) diagram involves considering a few key steps:

Selecting Tool for ER Diagram

Identify Requirements

Define your specific needs, such as collaboration features, ease of use, platform compatibility, and the complexity of diagrams you plan to create.

Research Tools

Explore available diagramming tools, both free and paid, that meet your requirements. Examples include Lucidchart, draw.io, ERDPlus, and Microsoft Visio.

Evaluate Features

Assess each tool's features, including entity and relationship representation, ease of drawing, collaboration capabilities, and export/import options.

Consider Integration

Check if the tool integrates well with other software or databases you'll be using, ensuring seamless collaboration and data import/export.

User-Friendly Interface

Choose a tool with an interface that suits your preferences and is user-friendly, allowing for efficient creation and modification of ER diagrams.

By systematically evaluating your needs, researching available tools, considering features, integration capabilities, and assessing user-friendliness, you can make an informed decision on the most suitable ER diagram tool for your project.

Steps to Make an ER Diagram

Once you have chosen for an ER diagram, follow the below steps to build an ER diagram:

Identify Entities

List the main objects or concepts you want to represent in your database, such as "Customer," "Product," or "Order."

Define Attributes

For each entity, identify and list the specific characteristics or properties, like "CustomerID" or "ProductName."

Establish Relationships

Determine how the identified entities are related to each other. For example, a "Customer" may have a relationship with an "Order."

Create the Diagram

Use rectangles for entities, ovals for attributes, and diamonds for relationships. Connect entities with lines, and indicate cardinality (one-to-one, one-to-many, etc.).

Review and Refine

Review your diagram for clarity and accuracy. Refine as needed, ensuring all relationships and attributes are accurately represented. Use software or tools for a polished final version.

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Edraw Team
Edraw Team May 23, 24
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